Perfect Competition Economics Essay Ideas

Perfect Competition Essay example

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Perfect Competition

Perfect competition is an idealised market structure theory used in economics to show the market under a high degree of competition given certain conditions. This essay aims to outline the assumptions and distinctive features that form the perfectly competitive model and how this model can be used to explain short term and long term behaviour of a perfectly competitive firm aiming to maximise profits and the implications of enhancing these profits further.

In a perfectly competitive market each firm is a “Price Taker” , i.e. the prices and wages are determined by the market and the firm is so small relative to the size of the market that they can have no influence over the market price. For a market to be…show more content…

This is also linked into the behaviour of the buyers in the market. Buyers are also price takers because they can purchase as much as they wish without influencing the market price. The final assumption is important when considering the long term equilibrium price of a firm in perfect competition. This assumption is that entry into the market is free and that there are no barriers to entry. Any costs incurred are incurred by all of the suppliers; an entrant will pay no additional cost for entering the firm.

In the short run the perfect competition equilibrium can be found by graphing the marginal cost (MC), average total cost (ATC) and marginal revenue (MR) curves. In perfect competition the price is equal to the average revenue, which is equal to the marginal revenue and these are all constant, giving an infinitely elastic demand curve for the firm. The demand curve is “perfectly price elastic” due to the homogeneity of the products supplied, where each supplier, as a price taker, must focus on a single price. Given this, the only choice a supplier has in the short run is how much to produce. For profit maximisation to occur marginal costs (supply curve) must equal marginal revenue (demand curve). Profit maximisation is assumed to mean the maximisation of normal economic profit (i.e. revenue that covers the

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Definition: Perfect competition describes a market structure where competition is at its greatest possible level. To make it more clear, a market which exhibits the following characteristics in its structure is said to show perfect competition:

1. Large number of buyers and sellers

2. Homogenous product is produced by every firm

3. Free entry and exit of firms

4. Zero advertising cost

5. Consumers have perfect knowledge about the market and are well aware of any changes in the market. Consumers indulge in rational decision making.

6. All the factors of production, viz. labour, capital, etc, have perfect mobility in the market and are not hindered by any market factors or market forces.

7. No government intervention

8. No transportation costs

9. Each firm earns normal profits and no firms can earn super-normal profits.

10. Every firm is a price taker. It takes the price as decided by the forces of demand and supply. No firm can influence the price of the product.

Description: Ideally, perfect competition is a hypothetical situation which cannot possibly exist in a market. However, perfect competition is used as a base to compare with other forms of market structure. No industry exhibits perfect competition in India.

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